A STUDY OF THE ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN PLANNING OF DAHANEH-E GHOLAMAN IN SISTAN, IRAN

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

Abstract

The Achaemenid architecture is a prominent example of the Achaemenid art. The Achaemenids were very interested in constructing palaces and terraces adorned with columns. The remains of these structures can be seen in Susa and Persepolis. Due to the expanse of the Achaemenid Empire and the extent of their political activities, they established satrapies at every corner of their empire to protect their lands. Dahaneh-e Gholaman (the gateway of slaves) is one of these satrapies, which is believed to have served as a political center in the Achaemenid Empire. Located in Sistan in the east of Iran, Dahaneh-e Gholaman is the only mudbrick city surviving from the Achaemenid Era. Traces of the Achaemenid architecture and urban planning can still be observed in the remaining buildings. This study sought to identify the features of the Achaemenid architecture in Dahaneh-e Gholaman using an interpretive-historical methodology. The findings show that, unlike other Achaemenid structures that are generally made of stone, clay was used to construct the buildings of Dahaneh-e Gholaman due to the availability of certain construction materials and the region’s climatic conditions. In addition, unlike other Achaemenid structures which have flat roofs, the buildings constructed in Dahaneh-e Gholaman have domed roofs. This shows that the residents were very knowledgeable about the region’s climatic conditions. Other elements of the Achaemenid architecture such as corner towers, apadana, military barracks, and columned halls are also present in Dahaneh-e Gholaman, all of which indicate the influence of the Achaemenid architecture and urban planning on this historical city.

Keywords


چکیده: معماری دوران هخامنشیان از نمونه‌های بارز هنر دوره هخامنشی است. هخامنشیان علاقه زیادی به بنای کاخ‌ها و ایوان‌های ستونداری داشته‌اند که در شوش و تخت جمشید نمونه‌هایی از آن را می‌توان مشاهده کرد. با توجه به بزرگ بودن امپراطوری و مسائل سیاسی هخامنشیان، آن‌ها ساتراپی‌هایی در اقصی نقاط سرزمین هایشان می‌ساخته‌اند که به نوعی از سرزمین‌هایشان مراقبت کند. یکی از این ساتراپی‌ها که از مراکز سیاسی امپراطوری هخامنشیان بحساب می‌آید، دهانه غلامان در در شرق ایران واقع در سیستان است. دهانه غلامان تنها شهرخشتی باقی‌مانده از دوران هخامنشیان است که با در نظر گرفتن شرایط اقلیمی و بومی منطقه، کما بیش تاثیر معماری و شهرسازی هخامنشیان در بناهایش دیده می‌شود. این مقاله با روش پژوهش تفسیری-‌تاریخی با معرفی ویژگی‌های معماری هخامنشی و معرفی ساختمان‌ها، در پی یافتن ویژگی‌های معماری هخامنشی در منطقه دهانه غلامان می‌باشد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که بر خلاف دیگر بناهای هخامنشی که عموماً از سنگ ساخته شده‌اند، در بناهای دهانه غلامان با توجه به مصالح موجود و اقلیم منطقه، از خشت در ساختار بناهایشان استفاده کرده‌اند و بر خلاف معماری هخامنشیان که عموماً سقفها بصورت صاف و مسطح بوده در دهانه غلامان سقفها بصورت گنبدی شکل طراحی شده‌اند که خود نشانه آشنایی و علم مردمان آن زمان به اقلیم و محیط بوده است. همچنین عناصر دیگری از معماری هخامنشیان نیز مانند برج‌های گوشه‌ی، آپادانا، وجود پادگان نظامی در شهر، تالارهای ستوندار در معماری و شهرسازی دهانه غلامان به چشم می‌خورد که همه این‌ها نشانه وجود و تاثیر ساختار معماری و شهرسازی هخامنشیان بر شهر دهانه غلامان می‌باشد.

کلمات کلیدی: معماری هخامنشیان، دهانه غلامان، شهر خشتی، سیستان.

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Volume 1, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
December 2021
Pages 21-30
  • Receive Date: 05 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 22 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 06 December 2021
  • Publish Date: 20 December 2021