THE MARḪAŠEAN TWO-FACED ‘GOD’: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE ICONOGRAPHIC AND RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPES OF THE HALIL RUD VALLEY CIVILIZATION AND THIRD MILLENNIUM BCE SOUTH-EASTERN IRAN

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 CNRS team Archéorient (Lyon, France; UMR 5133) / University of Tehran

2 University of Jiroft

3 Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Padova / ISMEO, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

This paper discusses a truncated-cone chlorite vessel currently held in the Miho Museum, in Japan. It was probably produced around 2300-2200 BCE in the Halil Rud Valley or Jiroft region and comes perhaps from a grave. This vessel displays a fascinating iconography, including the depiction of a hybrid character combining bovine, human, lion, and bird features. After discussing the hybrid characters that are observed on chlorite artifacts and glyptics in third millennium BCE south-eastern Iran, available textual data are considered for a narrative interpretation of the possible religious landscape of the polity called in Mesopotamian sources Marḫaši or Paraḫšum. It is also suggested that the so-called ‘Treaty of Naram-Sin’ might provide additional insights into the pantheon worshipped in Marḫaši around 2250 BCE.

Keywords


چکیده: مقاله پیش‌رو به بررسی ظرف مخروطی که در حال حاضر در موزه میهو ژاپن نگهداری می‌شود، می‌پردازد. ظرف مذکور احتمالا در حدود سال‌های 2300 تا 2200 پیش از میلاد در دره هلیل‌رود یا منطقه جیرفت تولیده شده است و به احتمال زیاد در یک گور کشف شده است. این ظرف منقوش به شمایل‌نگاری حیرت‌انگیزی از موجودی مرکب از گاو، انسان، شیر و پرنده است. پس از بررسی ویژگی‌های موجود چند رگه‌ی منقوش روی ظروف و سایر آثار سنگی هزاره سوم پیش‌از‌میلاد در جنوب‌شرقی ایران، به بررسی داده‌های بدست آمده از متون برای رسیدن به تفسیری روایی از چشم‌انداز مذهبی دولت موسوم به مرهشی با پراشوم در منابع میان‌رودانی خواهیم پرداخت. همچنین این نظریه مطرح خواهد شد که قرارداد معروف به "معاهده نارام-سین" شامل اطلاعات زیادی از خدایان مورد احترام مرهشی در 2250 پیش‌از میلاد است.

کلمات کلیدی: ایران، عصر مفرغ، تمدن درۀ هلیل رود/ جیرفت، مرهشی، دین، شمایل‌شناسی، دست‌ساخته‌های کلریتی.

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Volume 1, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
December 2021
Pages 49-85
  • Receive Date: 11 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 21 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 29 November 2022
  • Publish Date: 20 December 2021