Document Type : Original Article


1 Dipartimento Beni Culturali, Laboratorio di Antropologia Fisica, Università del Salento, Italy - MAIPS, Multidisciplinary Archaeological Italian Project at Shahr-i Sokhta

2 Department SAGAS, Università di Firenze, Italy - MAIPS, Multidisciplinary Archaeological Italian Project at Shahr-i Sokhta - Dipartimento Beni Culturali, Laboratorio di Antropologia Fisica, Università del Salento, Italy


A common observation in skeletal samples discovered during archaeological excavations is that male adult skeletons significantly outnumber female ones, while in living adult populations, the adult sex ratio (m/f) is close to 1. Male-biased archaeological sex ratios could partly be due to the rapid degradation of the more delicate female skeletons. In a large sample of necropolises from Southern Mediterranean, Northern Africa, and Middle East countries ranging from Neolithic to Middle Ages, we observed a mean sex ratio of 1.40. On the contrary, samples of adult skeletons from the necropolis of Shahr-i Sokhta, sexed by different authors using different methods, constantly show an overrepresentation of females (about 42% males and 58% females), i.e., a sex ratio of 0.72. Similar values have been observed in necropolis from chronologically close sites in the Bactria-Margiana and Indus Valley cultures (Gonur Depe, Mohenjo-Daro, Djarkutan, Rakhigarhi), We speculate that the most likely interpretation of this particular observation could be the uxorilocal settlement pattern in these populations.


چکیده: مقاله پیش‌رو به بررسی ظرف مخروطی که در حال حاضر در موزه میهو ژاپن نگهداری می‌شود، می‌پردازد. ظرف مذکور احتمالا در حدود سال‌های 2300 تا 2200 پیش از میلاد در دره هلیل‌رود یا منطقه جیرفت تولیده شده است و به احتمال زیاد در یک گور کشف شده است. این ظرف منقوش به شمایل‌نگاری حیرت‌انگیزی از موجودی مرکب از گاو، انسان، شیر و پرنده است. پس از بررسی ویژگی‌های موجود چند رگه‌ی منقوش روی ظروف و سایر آثار سنگی هزاره سوم پیش‌از‌میلاد در جنوب‌شرقی ایران، به بررسی داده‌های بدست آمده از متون برای رسیدن به تفسیری روایی از چشم‌انداز مذهبی دولت موسوم به مرهشی با پراشوم در منابع میان‌رودانی خواهیم پرداخت. همچنین این نظریه مطرح خواهد شد که قرارداد معروف به "معاهده نارام-سین" شامل اطلاعات زیادی از خدایان مورد احترام مرهشی در 2250 پیش‌از میلاد است.

کلمات کلیدی: ایران، عصر مفرغ، تمدن درۀ هلیل رود/ جیرفت، مرهشی، دین، شمایل‌شناسی، دست‌ساخته‌های کلریتی.

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Volume 1, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
December 2021
Pages 11-19
  • Receive Date: 22 September 2021
  • Revise Date: 03 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 13 December 2021
  • Publish Date: 20 December 2021