THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT ON THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE ON THE COASTS OF CHABAHAR AND KONARAK DURING THE ISLAMIC ERA

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 PhD Student in Archaeology, Department of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Archaeology, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.

Abstract

The diversity of climatic conditions has affected architecture and caused the formation of different types of architecture in Iran. The Makran area is a long plain on the northern shores of the Oman Sea and south of the Makran mountains in Sistan and Baluchistan province, which today includes two counties, Chabahar and Konarak. This area is considered warm and humid in terms of climate. In the present study, we investigate the natural and climatic causes affecting the formation and development of the architectural constructions on the Makran beaches, which appeared during the Islamic era. Therefore, in addition to the field method, documentary studies were used to collect information. First, the architectural samples of Makran beaches in the Islamic era were identified. Then thirteen instances were selected based on the building's architectural features, authenticity, and present condition. These buildings belong to the periods between the Seljuk dynasty and the late Pahlavi period.  The questions are, what were the strategies used by the architects to deal with the risks and unfavorable climatic conditions and their environmental effects? What similarities and differences are there between the architecture of the Islamic era of the coasts of the Persian Gulf and Makran? How has been the architectural pattern(s) of Makran coasts influenced by climate? The results of the investigations indicate that Makran architects were fully aware of the limitations and considered climatic factors such as sunlight, wind, temperature, and humidity. In the construction of buildings, they have paid attention to choosing things such as the type of materials, the color of materials, the construction of the building on the platform, the orientation of the building, and the design of the plan in an extroverted manner. This has ensured the comfort of the residents. These architectural principles are more visible in residential and native buildings. However, in buildings with military and administrative use, probably due to the influence of political and cultural factors, such measures have been thought less.

Keywords


Volume 4, Issue 1
June 2024
Pages 1-13
  • Receive Date: 15 November 2023
  • Revise Date: 26 March 2024
  • Accept Date: 01 April 2024
  • Publish Date: 01 June 2024