Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.


The review takes into consideration the importance of chemistry in the study of the human past, mainly, for the authentication and the provenience determination as well as the characterization of archaeological artifacts. Archaeological chemistry is an unbreakable linkage between archaeology and chemistry and has rapidly grown in the last few decades. The use of chemistry in archaeology can help archaeologists provide valuable information for the learning of archaeological sites and artifacts. Over the years, new chemical techniques have been improved, and the vital role of chemists in evaluating the development of technology and other activities of ancient civilizations has been increased. In addition to discovering the past, chemists should consider the physicochemical and analytical degradation procedures for preserving the heritage of humanity for our children and the next generations to enjoy, benefit, and learn from the legacy of the past. Furthermore, here, some commonly used analytical techniques such as neutron activation analysis (NAA), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are briefly described regarding their use for archaeological artifacts. We hope that this article will be helpful for students who are new to the field, in addition to interesting productive argument among experienced researchers.


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Volume 3, Issue 2
December 2023
Pages 15-17
  • Receive Date: 01 September 2023
  • Revise Date: 20 November 2023
  • Accept Date: 05 December 2023
  • Publish Date: 01 December 2023